Golfer’s Elbow Treatment, Symptoms, and Prevention

Golfer's elbow treatment at Orthopaedic Specialists in Louisville KY

Golf season upon us! With the warmer weather rolling in, more carts are out on the course than usual. With golfers swinging, putting, and driving, it’s the perfect time to prepare for potential injuries you might encounter. The most common one we see is golfer’s elbow. The repetitive motion of swinging a golf club often leads to overuse injuries. Whether you’re a professional and amateur golf player, understanding injuries can help keep players out on the putting green instead of watching from the sidelines. Learn more from Orthopaedic Specialists about golfer’s elbow treatment, symptoms, and preventions tips.

What is Golfer’s Elbow?

Also known as medial epicondylitis, golfer’s elbow is caused by repeated forceful motions. In golf, this includes throwing, lifting, or bending the wrist against a golf club improperly. However, golfers aren’t the only ones who are susceptible to golfer’s elbow. Anyone who engages in an activity that requires frequent bending of the elbow and use of the wrist can experience medial elbow pain. 

Golfer’s elbow is caused by “damage to the muscles and tendons that control your wrist and fingers.” The result is pain where the tendons of the forearm meet the inner bone of the elbow. Participating in racket sports, sports that require throwing, weight training with improper technique, or any other forceful and repetitive movement can lead to the onset of golfer’s elbow. 

There are also several other risk factors that can play a role in who may be at a higher risk of developing golfer’s elbow which include:

  • Being over the age of 40
  • Obesity
  • Smoking 

Golfer’s Elbow Symptoms

  • Pain and tenderness on the inside of the elbow 
  • Stiffness
  • Pain or weakness of the wrist
  • Numbness or tingling 
  • Pain or weakness with gripping
  • Swelling 

To diagnose a case of golfer’s elbow, a medical provider will look at the patient’s medical history and perform a physical exam to test what movements cause irritation and to determine the level of pain. 

Golfer’s Elbow Treatment

In most cases, golfer’s elbow can typically be treated with at-home remedies, which include:

  • Rest – Avoiding any movement or activity that can easily aggravate the muscles and tendons in the forearm
  • Elevation – Propping the elbow up helps stimulate blood flow
  • Ice – Icing the affected area for 10-15 minutes every 2 to 3 hours can help reduce swelling and prevent symptoms from worsening. Heat should not be used on a new injury, but can be applied to the affected area for 10-15 minutes before performing exercises prescribed by a healthcare provider. 
  • Over-the-counter pain reliever and anti-inflammatory medicines 
  • A splint or brace  – These can strengthen as well as protect the tendon and muscles affected; removing some of the strain and tension.

More serious cases of golfer’s elbow may call for treatments such as:

  • Rehabilitation exercises – Performing exercises prescribed by healthcare providers can improve the strength and flexibility of the muscles surrounding the elbow.
  • Cortisone injections – Injections can provide pain relief and reduce inflammation, however, they are not an effective long-term treatment option and can lead to prematurely going back to the activity that caused the injury. 
  • Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection therapy – PRP injection therapy is a non-invasive procedure that has been shown to treat chronic tendon injuries quickly. Dr. Stacie Grossfeld currently offers PRP injection therapy. Call 502-212-2663 today for more information or to schedule an appointment.
  • Surgery – In the rare case that the tendon tears, doctors may need to perform a surgical repair.  

How to Prevent Golfer’s Elbow

For those who participate in activities that can lead to the development of golfer’s elbow, be sure to take these preventative measures!

  • Perform conditioning exercises to strengthen the forearm muscles using light weights or squeezing a tennis ball
  • Properly stretch and warm-up the muscles before your activity
  • Use proper form and technique 
  • Use the right equipment
  • Rest to prevent overuse 

Depending on the severity of the injury, golfer’s elbow recovery time can take anywhere from several weeks to months. If you suffer from golf elbow pain, Dr. Stacie Grossfeld, an orthopedic surgeon and elbow specialist in Louisville, Kentucky, recommends seeking golfer’s elbow treatment as soon as the pain starts in order to avoid further damage and or chronic pain.

If you or someone you love has suffered a golfing injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified orthopedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

Angel McDowell and Rhonda King: The Orthopaedic Specialists Office’s Billing Department

Orthopaedic Specialist Office in Louisville KY treats a variety of Orthopaedic and Sports Injuries

If you’ve ever been to the Orthopaedic Specialists office, then you might know that it takes a village to keep things running smoothly. There isn’t a member of our office that we don’t appreciate and value! Today, we want to shine the spotlight on our billing department, which include our two gals, Angel McDowell and Rhonda King.

About Angel McDowell:

Orthopaedic Specialists in Louisville, KY is a woman-owned and run orthopaedic surgery practice.Having been working in the Orthopaedic Specialists office for 19 years now, Angel is a pillar of knowledge and a friendly face to everyone she meets. She graduated from the University of Louisville, and even started her medical office and insurance career at the U of L Health Services Center. She is now 47 years old and married with 2 adult children. She and her husband’s son is 20 years old and their daughter 26.

“With my husband and I almost being empty nesters – one out and one to go,” she laughs, “we are trying to get used to this new chapter in our lives and doing things we like to do.”

According to Angel, she and her husband love traveling and trying out new restaurants. Every now and then, they also enjoy trying their luck at the casino! Angel loves the ocean, and her favorite place to travel is the white sandy beaches anywhere on the Gulf side. Of course, she also enjoys eating a lot of seafood while there!

About Rhonda King:

Rhonda King of Orthopaedic Specialists Office in Louisville, KYRhonda has been with us at the Orthopaedic Specialists office since September 1999 – that’s coming up on 25 years! Over the years, she has contributed to several different areas in the office. Now, we’re very lucky to have her in the insurance and billing department.

She graduated from Indiana University Southeast with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Child Psychology in 1998. After graduating, she worked as a youth counselor for Maryhurst for a short time before coming to Orthopaedic Specialists. She has been a crucial part of the team since!

She is married to her husband, John, with whom she has 3 boys, who are all grown. They also have 3 dogs (one of which, Sandy the dachshund, will be 19 years old in September) and 3 kitties. In her spare time, her favorite things to do are:

  • Spending time with her grandkids
  • Vacationing at the ocean
  • Taking long weekend getaways (especially to Gatlinburg, TN)
  • Going to the movies
  • Rooting on the Indiana Hoosiers (one day we will have a winning season again)
  • Hanging out by our pool and having cook outs in the summer

We Asked:

What is your favorite part about working at Orthopaedic Specialists?

Angel: “My favorite part would be that it is a small, but fast-paced and successful office run entirely by women!”

Rhonda: “My favorite part about working for Orthopaedic Specialists is the work environment. Each one of us supports everyone else, whether that is here at the office or outside of work. We have a great work family!”

What is your favorite or most memorable work experience?

Angel: “I love our team building outings that we have! My most memorable one would be when Dr. Grossfeld surprised us with our first shopping spree to show her appreciation for us. We’ve had several since that first time, but that one was really special.”

Rhonda: “Several years ago, Dr. Grossfeld was the treating physician for the WWE when their training center was located here, before it moved to Florida. During that time, I got to meet a few of the wrestlers and even got autographs for my kids when they were young!”

Is there anything else you’d like to include about Dr. Grossfeld, Orthopaedic Specialists, or your co-workers?

Angel: “I feel so blessed to have worked here for 19 years. Dr. Grossfeld is well aware that I am a ‘lifer’ in the office. The world of billing and insurance changes constantly and can be challenging at times, but I have learned over the years to accept that challenge, figure it out, and go on to the next. My work family is a wonderful group of smart, caring, and hardworking group of women.”

Rhonda: “I could not imagine working anywhere else but here! Dr. Grossfeld makes sure her office staff is happy. She has shown her appreciation by taking us on shopping trips for purses, shoes, etc. It is always fun hanging out with co-workers outside of the office!”

If you or someone you love has suffered an injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified sports medicine physician Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

Osteoarthritis vs Osteoarthrosis: What’s the Difference?

Osteoarthrosis and arthritis treatment in Louisville KY at Orthopaedic Specialists.

When coming across the terms osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, you might be wondering what these terms mean or whether or not they refer to the same condition. However, while osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis sound extremely similar, they are actually different orthopedic conditions! 

First, it might be helpful to break down the terms osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis in order to determine what they mean and how they are different. 


  • “Osteo,” or the Greek word for ‘bone’ and
  • “-itis,” which means ‘inflammation’


  • “Arthro-,” which is a prefix meaning ‘joint,’ and
  • “-osis,” meaning ‘disease process or condition’ 

While many medical societies consider these two terms interchangeable and synonymous, osteoarthrosis is technically any noninflammatory arthritic condition that results in similar degenerative changes as in osteoarthritis, such as TMJ and other conditions. Additionally, even though osteoarthritis has traditionally been classified as a non-inflammatory disease, as the immune system is studied, many medical professionals are questioning that classification.


Typically, people are most familiar with the term ‘arthritis.’ This is a more general term for conditions that affect the joints or the tissue around a joint. There are many different types of arthritis, including:

  • Rheumatoid ArthritisAn autoimmune and inflammatory disease, which means that your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake, causing inflammation (painful swelling) in the affected parts of the body. 
  • Juvenile ArthritisArthritis that appears in children most likely due to the immune system not functioning properly, which causes inflammation in the joints and other body systems.
  • Psoriatic ArthritisA chronic inflammation of the skin and joints that causes pain, stiffness, and swelling in affected joints that sometimes occurs alongside psoriasis, which is a chronic autoimmune skin disease that speeds up the growth cycle of skin cells.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs when there is increased pressure on the joints that causes the cartilage within a joint to break down. This loss of cartilage – the flexible, protective tissue at the ends of bones – can cause the underlying bone to become exposed and subject to change over time.  

Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint, the disorder most commonly affects joints in your hands, knees, hips and spine. The symptoms of osteoarthritis can include:

  • Pain
  • Stiffness
  • Swelling
  • Decreased joint movement 
  • Tenderness

Risk factors can include:

  • Older age
  • Gender (Women are more likely to develop osteoarthritis)
  • Obesity
  • Joint injuries
  • Repeated stress on the joint
  • Genetics
  • Bone deformities
  • Certain metabolic diseases including diabetes and hemochromatosis, a condition where your body has too much iron
  • Occupation

How to Help Prevent and Treat Osteoarthritis

While it might not be possible to fully prevent osteoarthritis, there are some preventative measures that can decrease the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis or stop it from getting worse.

  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Control blood sugar
  • Avoid injury to your joints
  • Exercise daily 

Treatment can vary from surgical to nonsurgical options depending on the condition of the patient and can include:


Osteoarthrosis generally occurs in older adults as cartilage begins to deteriorate with age. Similar to osteoarthritis, this loss of cartilage can result in painful and damaging bone-to-bone contact within the joints. 

Osteoarthrosis most commonly affects the knee, hip, and hand. It also has similar symptoms to osteoarthritis including:

  • Pain
  • Stiffness
  • Decreased joint movement 

Risk factors can include:

  • Age
  • Weight
  • Genetics
  • Occupation
  • Joint deformities

Treatment of Osteoarthrosis

There is no way to completely prevent osteoarthrosis, however, there are ways to manage and treat symptoms, which include: 

  • Rest
  • Weight loss
  • Occupational therapy
  • Supportive aids such as canes, crutches, shoe lifts, and elastic knee supports
  • Physical therapy to help safely strengthen muscles around the affected joint 
  • Joint surgery
  • Medication

Remember to consult your doctor for insight into your personal risk factors regarding osteoarthritis or osteoarthrosis. If you are at a higher risk for developing either one, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle and closely monitor the health of your joints. Make sure to contact your healthcare provider if any sudden or abnormal pain persists for a long period of time. 

If you or someone you love suffers from arthritis or another disease or injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified orthopedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

MCL and ACL Tears

Orthopaedic Specialists treats ACL and MCL tears in Louisville KY.

Would you believe us if we told you there are over 300 joints in the human body? That’s right – adults actually have around 350 joints. Out of all 350 of those joints, the knee joint is actually the largest and one of the most complex. While every joint plays a vital role in the overall function of the body, the knee joint is especially important. It not only supports your weight, but is also what allows you to move and bend your legs. That’s why doctors emphasize the importance of proper treatment and recovery for injuries like MCL and ACL tears! 

An Overview of Ligaments in the Knee

Proper movement of the knee wouldn’t be possible without the help of the four primary ligaments in the knee joint:

  1. The medial collateral ligament (MCL)
  2. The lateral collateral ligament (LCL)
  3. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  4. The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

These ligaments are strong and flexible bands of tissue that connect bones to one another and provide stability in the joint. You can find the MCL and LCL along the inner and outer sides of the knee, the ACL in the middle of the knee, and the PCL deeper in the knee behind the ACL. While these ligaments play a vital role in keeping the knee joint strong and stable, the knee is still a vulnerable joint that is susceptible to injury. 

Two of the most common knee injuries include MCL and ACL tears. 

MCL Tear VS. ACL Tear

MCL and ACL tears occur when the fibers of the ligament are torn either partially or completely into two pieces. Anyone can experience an MCL tear, however, they are more common in athletes who participate in sports such as football, basketball, and skiing. 

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) forms an “X” shape with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and helps to keep the knee from bending or rotating past its natural limit. Similar to MCL tears, ACL tears can happen to anyone, but basketball, football, and soccer athletes experience them most commonly. Additionally, research shows that female athletes are more likely to experience ACL tears than men.

Causes of MCL and ACL Tears:

There are several different movements or circumstances that can lead to an MCL or ACL tear. The causes for MCL and ACL tears are very similar and can include: 

  • Forcefully shifting directions while one foot is planted on the ground 
  • Someone or something forcefully hitting the outer side of the knee (MCL) or the side of the knee more generally (ACL) 
  • Squatting or lifting heavy objects (MCL)
  • Landing from a jump in a strange position that tweaks the knee
  • Hyperextending (overstretching) the knee
  • Repeated pressure and stress to the knee – this can cause the MCL or ACL to lose elasticity 
  • When the knee is bent backward or twisted (ACL)
  • Car accidents or hard falls can also lead to ACL tears if too much force is put on the knee

Oftentimes, injuries that cause ACL tears can also damage other parts of the knee, so it is not abnormal for an ACL and MCL tear to occur at the same time. 

MCL and ACL Tear Symptoms:

Much like the causes of MCL and ACL tears, the symptoms of both injuries manifest in similar ways. Depending on the severity of the injury, torn knee ligament symptoms can include: 

  • Hearing a popping sound when the injury occurs
  • Pain in the knee
  • Tenderness on the inner side of the knee (MCL)
  • Swelling or stiffness
  • Instability of the knee that makes it difficult to walk or support your weight 
  • Locking or catching of the joint 
  • Loss of range of motion

MCL and ACL Tear Diagnosis:

The severity of both MCL and ACL tears are classified based on a 3 grade level. When it comes to the diagnosis of an MCL or ACL tear, a healthcare provider will first conduct a physical exam to get a sense of the severity of the injury based on pain level and range of motion. After a physical exam, your provider may order an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), an ultrasound, X-ray, or CT (computed tomography) scan. This allows doctors to look at the injury in more detail. At this stage, they will also be able to see if there are any other injuries to the knee. 

Treatments for MCL and ACL Tears:


More often than not, MCL tear recovery does not require surgical treatment unless there are other injuries to the knee that occur alongside an MCL tear. Instead, MCL injury treatment may include:

  • Using the RICE method, which includes resting the knee, icing the knee, wearing a compression band, and elevating the knee during rest. This method helps reduce pain and swelling. 
  • Taking pain medication to reduce pain and swelling in the knee.
  • Using crutches to reduce the amount of weight that is put on the injured knee.
  • Physical therapy exercises to regain strength and range of motion

MCL tear recovery time varies depending on the grade of the injury. A grade 1 MCL tear can take 1-3 weeks to heal, a grade 2 MCL tear can take 4-6 weeks to heal, and a grade 3 MCL tear can take 6 weeks or more to fully heal.


As for ACL tear treatment, it is possible for an ACL tear to heal naturally if it is a low grade tear. However, athletes who wish to return to their sports or those who have severe ACL tears typically undergo surgery and have the ACL surgically repaired.

Outside of surgery, torn ACL treatment also involves:

  • The RICE method
  • Taking pain medication
  • Using crutches
  • Wearing a brace to hold the knee in place 
  • Physical therapy exercises

It is extremely important that an ACL injury is properly healed before getting back into physical activity or else you run the risk of reinjuring the ACL. Depending on the severity of the injury and whether or not surgery is involved in the treatment plan, ACL tear recovery time can take anywhere from 6 to 12 months.  

If you or someone you love has suffered an injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified orthopedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

What is Palindromic Rheumatism?

Symptoms and treatment of Palindromic Rheumatism at Orthopedic Specialists.

There are many types of arthritis that plague the population. However, one of the strangest has to be palindromic rheumatism. Other names for this rare condition include palindromic rheumatoid arthritis, palindromic arthritis, or palindromic inflammatory arthritis. This form of inflammatory arthritis is characterized by short periods of joint pain and inflammation flare-ups. However, outside of the ‘arthritis attacks,’ joints feel completely normal and do not experience any permanent damage.

While palindromic rheumatism may target any joint(s), fingers, wrists, and knees are most common. Flare-ups range in frequency and length and vary with each individual. Some flare-ups last only a couple of hours, but some might last days. Some only have a flare-up a few times a year while other might experience them several times a week. Regardless of how long or often the flare-ups happen, though, this condition is still different than other arthritis conditions like RA, or rheumatoid arthritis.

Some studies suggest that palindromic arthritis is a pre-rheumatoid arthritis stage for some, but not all. In fact, only approximately 13% of patients develop rheumatoid arthritis later in life. While rheumatoid arthritis is the most common development after palindromic rheumatism, it is not the only. Some people with this condition are also at a higher risk of developing lupus and/or other systemic disorders instead.

Palindromic Inflammatory Arthritis vs Rheumatoid Arthritis

While the two conditions share similar symptoms whilst active, there are several differences between palindromic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Chronicity: RA is a chronic disease whereas palindromic rheumatism is an acute condition with chronic recurrences.
  2. Demographics: While rheumatoid arthritis affects women more often than men, palindromic inflammatory arthritis can be found equally in both men and women.
  3. Location: Palindromic rheumatism flare-ups only affect 1-2 joints, which vary with each flare. Rheumatoid arthritis affects multiple joints consistently.
  4. Effects: Where joint erosion might be present in those with rheumatoid arthritis, palindromic arthritis does not permanently affect the joints.

Symptoms of Palindromic Rheumatoid Arthritis

As stated, palindromic rheumatism attacks come on suddenly and unexpectedly. There are no warning symptoms or triggers prior to the attack. During the arthritis attack, however, symptoms can include:

  • Painful, stiff joints and surrounding tendons
  • Visibly swollen affected area
  • Tender, hot, and/or redness around inflammation
  • Potential fever/systemic symptoms

After the flare-up passes, some people experience fatigue and tiredness. Otherwise, there are no symptoms or pain outside of the attack.

Palindromic Arthritis Treatment

Palindromic rheumatism attacks are difficult to anticipate, and therefore can be difficult to treat. However, one benefit of palindromic arthritis is that, due to the acute nature of the condition, it can be treated more conservatively than other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Most often, patients treat acute flare-ups with rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Maintaining a healthy, non-inflammatory diet can also be a tool to manage the frequency of attacks. In more serious cases, some anti-rheumatic medications (DMARDs) used for rheumatoid arthritis, such as hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine, may be prescribed. If you seek treatment from a doctor, it is better to go during a flare-up, as any symptoms go away outside of them.

If you or someone you love suffers from arthritis in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board-certified sports medicine physician and orthopedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

March Madness: Common Basketball Injuries

Treat your common basketball injuries at Orthopedic Specialists in Louisville, KY.

With the Super Bowl closing out the NFL season in February, the month of March now rolls in. But that just means that basketball fans are rejoicing everywhere. After all, March Madness is soon approaching! However, when filling out those March Madness brackets, it is important to take into consideration athlete injuries. It’s true that basketball isn’t as aggressive as collision sports such as football and hockey. But basketball players actually have one of the highest injury rates out of all the contact sports. Keep reading along to learn about the most common basketball injuries that athletes experience!

Understanding Basketball Injuries 

No matter if you play professionally, for an organized team, or recreationally, basketball is a demanding sport. The athletes have to constantly be ready to move in different directions and complete dynamic, high-impact movements. That might include running forwards and backwards, lateral shuffling, and jumping. The agility and quick movements can easily lead to injuries. While basketball injuries can occur in any part of the body, the most common injuries are typically located in the lower body. 

Common Basketball Injuries

  • Ankle Injuries
    • Sprained ankles are a common injury among basketball players where the ligaments around your ankle get overstretched or torn. Ankle sprains can occur as a result of landing or jumping while off balance or having your foot roll outward or inward.
  • Knee Injuries
    • Jumper’s knee, also known as patellar tendonitis, is a common cause of knee pain after basketball. It occurs when the patellar tendon becomes inflamed due to overuse of the knee joint. Repeatedly putting stress on the tendon from frequent jumping on hard surfaces can lead to weakness and possible tears in the tendon.
    • ACL tears are another common injury among athletes. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of four major ligaments in the knee joint that helps maintain the knee’s rotational stability. ACL tears often occur during a sudden twisting movement such as pivoting and landing after a jump.
  • Finger Injuries
    • Basketball finger injuries, such as jammed fingers, often occur because of the frequent passing of the ball that is required. 
  • Lower Leg and Foot Injuries 
    • Stress fractures are typically overuse injuries that create microscopic tears in the bone. These tears are due to muscles fatigue or weakness, leaving the athlete unable to perform an exercise properly. Increasing the amount or intensity of an activity before an athlete is ready can also lead to stress fractures.


When it comes to playing basketball, or any sport for that matter, it is important to be aware of the ways you can prevent injuries from happening in the first place.

1. Warm-up and Stretch

Properly and thoroughly warming up your muscles to prepare for the quick movements in a game of basketball can help ensure that you’re ready to perform at your highest potential. 

2. Strength training

Incorporating strength training into your routine can not only improve your performance on the court, but it can also strengthen those muscles, ligaments, and tendons that are more susceptible to injury. 

3. Proper technique

Using proper technique on the court can reduce the risk of collision-related injuries. It also prevents unnecessary stress on parts of the body that develop injuries easily. 

4. Appropriate Equipment

Having appropriate equipment and a safe environment to play a game of basketball is crucial to avoiding basketball injuries. Being properly equipped for a game of basketball includes:

  • Using a mouth guard
  • Wearing safety glasses
  • Taping fingers to prevent jammed fingers
  • Wearing basketball shoes that:
    • Fit well
    • Provide good ankle support
    • Have nonskid treads

5. Stay Hydrated 

Dehydration interferes with athletic performance as muscles can become tense or cramp up due to the body losing water during physical activity. This can lead to muscle strains, tears, and bone fractures. Make sure you focus on hydrating before, during, and after physical activity! 

Returning to Play After an Injury

For players recovering from a basketball injury, it is crucial to follow the orthopedic surgeon’s guidance and engage in a structured rehabilitation program. Rushing back to the court prematurely can exacerbate the injury and lead to long-term consequences.

In conclusion, basketball is a sport that is loved and played by many as it provides a fun opportunity to get active and socialize with others. Because basketball is such a popular sport, it is important to be aware of the injury risks that can come with playing. By understanding common basketball injuries and methods of prevention, players can more confidently step out onto the court knowing how to increase their performance, while also prioritizing their musculoskeletal health.

If you or someone you love has suffered a sports injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified orthopedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

Achilles Tendon Injuries: Acute Achilles Rupture vs Chronic Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles tendon injuries can be either acute Achilles Rupture or Achilles Tendinitis

Did you know that the Achilles tendon is the strongest tendon that our body has? It’s true! It has to be, since it plays such an important role in our ability to walk, run, jump, and move. It’s located at the back of the leg and connects the calf muscles – or the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles – to the heel bone. All people use this tendon everyday, and those such as athletes use it even more at a higher intensity. With how much the average person relies on their lower body, heel, foot, and leg pain might not be new. However, with Achilles tendon injuries, addressing pain and other issues is an important step in preventing further injury.

You might be asking: why the Achilles tendon specifically?

Unfortunately, alongside being the strongest tendon, the Achilles tendon also happens to be the most commonly-injured in the lower body. Because this tendon is so imperative to our daily activities and movement, knowing the type of pain you experience in the area and when to seek out medical treatment is critical to maintaining your health.

There are two types of Achilles tendon injuries that you should know: chronic Achilles tendinitis and acute Achilles rupture.

Chronic Achilles Tendinitis

Chronic Achilles tendinitis is a common overuse injury. Basically, if the Achilles tendon becomes inflamed, the body responds by swelling and becoming painful or irritated. There are two types of Achilles tendonitis:

Non-insertional Achilles Tendonitis is found more often in younger, active people. Small tears begin to break the tendon down, causing pain, swelling, hardening, and thickening of the tendon.

Insertional Achilles Tendinitis originates from the lower tendon near the heel. This is where it attaches to the bone. Because of its proximity, bone spurs are more likely to form with this type of tendonitis. Insertional Achilles Tendonitis can be found in all ages and activity levels, and is caused in part by calf muscle tightness, which increases the stress on the tendon insertion.

Acute Achilles Rupture

An acute Achilles rupture is the worse of the two injuries. When ruptures occur, the Achilles tendon tears or separates in one or more places. It accounts for 20% of all large tendon ruptures, and many who have experienced this injury describe it as a “gunshot” sensation. You might hear a loud pop or crack, and then experience a sharp and persistent pain at your ankle and up the back of your leg. It is very common in athletes due to the high number of abrupt accelerations and decelerations. This is a serious injury and requires immediate medical attention.

Achilles rupture treatment may be nonoperative or operative. However, the type of treatment depends on the age, activity demands, and how long the patient has had the injury. Nonoperative treatments often include bracing or casting alongside rehabilitation. Operative treatments can include:

  • Open end-to-end Achilles tendon repair
  • Percutaneous Achilles tendon repair
  • Reconstruction with VY advancement
  • Flexor hallucis longus transfer +/- VY advancement of gastrocnemius

Achilles Tendon Injury Treatment in Louisville, KY

Approximately 25% of Achilles tendon injuries are misdiagnosed at initial presentation. However, if you have experienced severe or persistent heel and calf pain, you may have an Achilles tendon injury.

Remember that while the injury is more common in both consistent and episodic athletes, Achilles tendon injuries can happen to anyone! Conditions that weaken or cause joints, tendons, and muscles to degenerate like arthritis, natural age, or prior untreated injuries can also contribute to risk.

If you or someone you love has suffered an Achilles Tendon injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified sports medicine physician Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

An Overview of Osteonecrosis/Avascular Necrosis Treatment and Causes

Osteonecrosis, avascular necrosis treatment in Louisville KY

Avascular necrosis, also known as osteonecrosis, is the death of bone tissue caused by a lack of blood supply. Avascular necrosis can cause tiny breaks in the bone, which can eventually lead the bone to fully collapse if the issue is not properly treated. While osteonecrosis can affect individuals of any age or gender, it is most commonly found in individuals between the ages of 30 and 50. Additionally, osteonecrosis can happen to any bone in the body, but it most typically develops in the hip, knee, and shoulder. Learn more about avascular necrosis treatment and causes below!

Avascular Necrosis Causes

There are several different causes of a lack of blood supply that can potentially lead to avascular necrosis. More often than not, avascular necrosis tends to be caused by a systemic problem such as if you have an autoimmune disease and you’re on high doses of steroids. There are other causes including:

  1. An injury, such as dislocations or fractures around a joint
  2. Excessive alcohol and tobacco use
  3. Radiation therapy or chemotherapy
  4. Fatty deposits in blood vessels
  5. Sickle cell anemia
  6. Gaucher disease 
  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus
  8. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
  9. HIV infection

Osteonecrosis Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of osteonecrosis may vary depending on what part of the body is affected and how much the bone tissue, as well as the surrounding area, is impacted. Some common symptoms of osteonecrosis include the following:

  1. Pain in the joint that may increase over time, especially if the bone collapses
  2. Pain that occurs even at rest
  3. Limited range of motion
  4. Groin pain, if the hip joint is affected
  5. Limping, if the condition occurs in the leg
  6. Difficulty with overhead movement, if the shoulder joint is affected
  7. Worsening arthritic symptoms in the joint when the condition deteriorates

Avascular Necrosis Treatment

When it comes to diagnosing a case of avascular necrosis, doctors usually turn toward imaging methods such as an x-ray or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Depending on the severity of the patient’s condition, there are several ways to treat avascular necrosis. Initially, the healthcare provider will attempt to treat the underlying condition that might be causing the problem. If the treatment of an underlying condition is not the proper solution for a particular case of avascular necrosis, the healthcare provider will turn to treating the bone itself.

If the condition is caught early on and there is not a large amount of damage to the bone or surrounding joint that is in need of surgical treatment, the patient may take pain relievers, limit use of the affected area, and potentially be given range-of-motion exercises to do. There is the possibility that nonsurgical treatment will slow the progression of osteonecrosis; however, most people will need surgery.

Surgical options include:

  • Core decompression, which consists of drilling holes in the bone right into the lesion to stimulate new bone growth into that area
  • Osteochondral bone grafts or replacements, which consist of replacing the affected bone with healthier bone
  • If the joint collapses, the worst case scenario is undergoing a whole knee/hip/shoulder replacement based on the area affected 

Each case of avascular necrosis is different, so it is best to consult your healthcare provider if you are experiencing any kind of pain, especially if it is joint pain. Want to see a real-life diagnosis of osteonecrosis? Check out the informative TikTok made by Orthopaedic Specialists’ board-certified orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Stacie Grossfeld!

If you or someone you love has suffered an injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area and developed osteonecrosis as a result, board certified orthopedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

An Overview of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and What It Means to Be Board Certified

Dr. Stacie Grossfeld in Louisville, KY is double board certified in Orthopaedic Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine through the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery.

Dr. Stacie Grossfeld, Louisville orthopedic surgeon, is double-board certified in both orthopedic surgery and orthopaedic sports medicine through the American Board of Orthopedic Surgeons. But what exactly does that mean? Is one more important than the other? How do you get board-certified?

You’re in luck! Because Orthopaedic Specialists is here with a short overview of sports medicine, board certifications, and what it means to be an orthopedic specialist.

Sports Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery

When a doctor goes through medical school, eventually, they make it to their period of residency, which is where the hopeful doctor hones their skills in the specialty of their choice. There are plenty of medical specialties to choose from, be it pediatrics, cardiology, genecology, anesthesiology, family medicine, psychiatry, plastic surgery, dermatology, etc., and orthopaedic surgery is one of them. Due to the broad nature of each specialty, doctors can then choose to get even more granular and earn a certificate in a subspecialty. Common subspecialties in orthopedic surgery are:

  • Adult Reconstructive Orthopaedics
  • Hand Surgery
  • Musculoskeletal Oncology
  • Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
  • Orthopaedic Surgery of the Spine
  • Pediatric Orthopaedics

So, Dr. Grossfeld was first board-certified in orthopedic surgery by the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery after her residency and internship at the University of Minnesota, and then obtained her subspecialty in Sports Medicine after completing her fellowship at the Fowler-Kennedy Sports Medicine Center.

What are the American Board of Orthopedic Surgery’s Qualifications to Earn a Subspecialty?

According to the ABOS, “The Subspecialty Certificate in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine is for Board-Certified orthopaedic surgeons who have demonstrated qualifications in sports medicine beyond those expected of other orthopaedic surgeons by virtue of additional training, a practice characterized by a volume of cases in sports medicine, or have made significant contributions to this field.”

Other qualifications include:

  • Candidates must have completed a one year ACGME accredited fellowship in orthopaedic sports medicine
  • Candidates must have a one-year case list submitted, composed of at least 115 operative cases and 10 non-operative cases
  • Seventy five of the 115 operative cases must involve arthroscopy as a component of the procedure
  • Candidates must complete a four-hour examination consisting of 175 multiple-choice questions

How is an Orthopedic Sports Medicine Specialist Different From a Regular Orthopedic Surgeon?

Orthopedic sports medicine specialists are orthopaedic surgeons, but they specialize in treating and preventing athletic or exercise injuries. Many times, sports medicine specialists will also focus on other lifestyle factors, such as training, physical therapy exercises, and nutrition. This specialty is also applied to other mobility-related injuries for those with disabilities or chronic conditions like arthritis.

Common conditions that an orthopedic sports medicine specialist might treat are:

  • Trauma, broken bones, and fractures
  • Dislocations and separations
  • Tendonitis
  • Joint injections
  • Shoulder pain and injuries, such as:
    • Rotator cuff tears
    • Dislocated shoulders
    • Frozen shoulders
    • Pitcher’s shoulder
    • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
    • Swimmer’s shoulder
  • Nerve compression
  • Arthritis
  • Overuse injuries
  • Torn cartilage
  • Knee pain and injuries, such as:
    • ACL injuries
    • MCL injuries
    • PCL injuries
    • Knee arthroscopies
  • Foot and ankle injuries
  • Elbow, wrist, arm, and finger injuries
  • Sprains and strains
  • Tennis elbow

If you or someone you love has suffered a sports injury in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, double-board certified orthopedic sports medicine physician and orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.

What are Bunions?

X-ray of bunions on big toe, Louisville Orthopedic Specialist for bunions treatment

Hallux Valgus and Bunions

Hallux valgus is an orthopedic condition that causes a deformity in the foot as the big toe begins to point toward the second toe. Bunions are a result of the movement, and are characterized by a bony lump that appears on the inside of of the foot at the base of the big toe. Over time, bunions can get bigger and more painful, but taking the proper steps to prevent and manage them when they first appear can put off surgical treatment.

What Causes Bunions?

One of the largest factors contributing to the development of bunions is genetics. Approximately 70% of people with with this condition have a family history of the condition, especially amongst adolescents. Otherwise, hallux valgus can develop due to several factors, such as unbalanced force exerted on the joints, tendons, and ligaments of the foot, certain lifestyles, foot trauma, pre-existing conditions, and repetitive micro-trauma. It is important to note that while lifestyle factors can increase the risk of developing bunions, not every person at higher risk develops bunions as a result of their activities.

With these factors in mind, the populations most at risk of developing bunions are:

  • Women, especially pregnant women
  • Athletes, especially ballerinas and dancers
  • People in occupations that involve long periods of standing and/or walking
  • People who wear narrow-toed or high-heeled shoes
  • People with:
    • Low arches, flat feet, or splayfoot
    • Weak connective tissue
    • A short Achilles’ tendon
    • Short calf muscles
    • Arthritis or other joint conditions

Symptoms of Bunions

Outside of the visual protrusion, other symptoms of bunions include:

  • Pain and tenderness at the site of the bunion
  • Redness and inflammation of the toes and/or foot
  • Hardened skin on the bottom of the foot
  • Calluses or corns on the bunion
  • Stiffness, arthritis, or restricted motion of the big toe
  • Difficulty or a disruption of normal walking patterns

Are Bunions Painful?

How painful a bunion can be is dependent on how big the protrusion is and how deformed the toes are. Small and unbothered, some people might not notice their bunions. However, as time passes and the condition progresses, the bunion(s) may become bigger. This leads to the complications that make them painful.

One complication with large bunions is the fact that most shoes are not made to accommodate the bony protrusion of a bunion. Tight or ill-fitting shoes might not always cause bunions, but the consistent irritation present when wearing shoes makes the condition painful. Bunion bumps and deformity can also damage the nerves in your big toe and cause numbness or inflammation.

Bunions can also indirectly cause pain, as well. Because of the unnatural way it shapes the foot and affects walking patterns, people with bunions are more susceptible to osteoarthritis in the big toe joint, knees, and hips later in life. Depending on the size, this condition can also affect balance and the deformity might increase the risk of falls, especially for the elderly.

How Are Bunions Treated?

If bunions cause debilitating pain, grow to be disruptive, or threaten future orthopedic health, doctors will recommend bunion surgery to correct the deformity and get rid of the protrusion. However, bunions that are mild or painless can be managed by conservative, non-surgical treatments. Though these treatments will not cure or get rid of bunions, they can greatly slow the progression of them and reduce pain. These non-surgical bunion treatments can include:

  1. Splints or Braces: Toe splints and toe braces can come in different sizes and forms, but the most common are toe-spacers and night splint.
  2. Appropriate Footwear: Many doctors will recommend switching to wide-toed, flat shoes to lessen irritation. Being barefoot as much as possible will also eliminate bunion irritation and pressure.
  3. Shoe Padding or Orthotics: Custom-made or over-the-counter shoe inserts will often be used in conjunction with proper footwear. This ensures that the toes and foot are supported and the pressure put on the muscles, bones, and tendons are correctly balanced.
  4. Physiotherapy: Stretching and exercising foot muscles can strengthen feet and ligaments, which can help slow the condition.
  5. Over-the-Counter Painkillers: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen can be used manage pain alongside other treatments. However, painkillers should only be used for a short period of time, so be sure to consult your doctor if you experience continuous or extreme pain from bunions.

If you or someone you love has suffered from bunions in the Louisville, Kentucky-area, board certified sports medicine physician Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC can help. Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC is accepting new patients, and same day appointments are available. For additional information or to schedule an appointment, please contact Orthopaedic Specialists PLLC today at 502-212-2663.