The ABCs of Orthopedics: Part 1

orthopedicsOrthopedics is often thought of a branch of medicine, but it is in fact a branch of surgery. Orthopedic surgeons, like Dr. Stacie Grossfeld, treat musculoskeletal trauma and other bone and joint health problems using both surgical and nonsurgical means. Often, orthopedic surgeons have a specialty focus whether it be spinal diseases, congenital disorders, or sports injuries. Dr. Stacie Grossfeld of Orthopaedic Specialists in Louisville, KY is an orthopedic surgeon with an American Board of Orthopedic Surgery Certification in sports medicine.  

However, regardless of an orthopedic surgeon’s approach or specialty, there is terminology that is important to every doctor studying orthopedics. This terminology is also important to patients who are undergoing orthopedic surgery or rehabilitation. The more familiar a patient is with terminology, the more comfortable they will be during their procedure. To familiarize patients of Dr.Stacie Grossfeld with orthopedic terminology, we’ve created our own version of the ABCs of Orthopedics below.

Important Terms in Orthopedics: Part 1 (A-M)

A is for Anterior Cruciate Ligament

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament is more commonly known as the ACL. The ACL is a ligament that runs on the inside of the knee joint and supports the shin. Together with the knee and shin, the ACL prevents the tibia from sliding in front of the thigh bone. ACL injuries are one of the most common sports injuries that affect athletes who participate in high school and college sports.

B is for Bone Mineral Density

Bone mineral density is a test done using an X-ray to measure the density and strength of your bones. Orthopedic doctors use bone mineral density tests to diagnose the strength of a patient’s bones. BMDTs can also measure the rate of bone loss and the likelihood of a patient developing osteoporosis.

C is for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy is a brain condition that is a result of repetitive trauma to the head and brain. No testing is available to diagnose CTE, but it is often detected post mortem during an autopsy by an increased amount of TAU protein and widespread neurofibrillary tangles. CTE can cause neuropathic changes and development of neuropsychiatric conditions, changes in behavior, and cognitive deficits.

D is for Distal Bicep Tendon Rupture

A distal bicep tendon rupture most often occurs in men between the ages of 40 and 60 years old. This injury is usually a result of a sudden flexion of the elbow. This can occur when someone is lifting an object that is heavier than realized. Most often, a pop is heard at the moment of injury followed by swelling and discoloration in the area affected. There are three tests that can determine if you have suffered a Distal Bicep Tendon Rupture without the need of an MRI.

E is for External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis

External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis is often called the “arterial disease of cyclists”. This is because EIAE results from putting pressure on the external iliac which is part of the artery that is found in the hip area and splits to run down the legs. Cyclists often put pressure on that artery when bending forward while cycling. Overtime, the artery becomes irritated and hardens resulting in the endofibrosis.

F is for Femoroacetabular Impingement

The term Femoroacetabular Impingement is used to describe a pre-existing medical condition in which a person’s hip bones are not shaped as they should be. Because the hip bones are misshapen, they fit together incorrectly and rub which in turn damages the hip joint and often requires hip replacement surgery.

G is for Golfer’s Elbow

Medial Epicondylitis, more commonly known as Golfer’s Elbow, is an elbow injury that is a result of overuse and chronic inflammation of the medial collateral ligament. While swelling does not normally occur, people who are suffering from Golfer’s Elbow typically experience pain on the inside of the elbow.

H is for Hemiarthroplasty

Hemiarthroplasty refers to a surgical procedure in which one half of a joint is removed and replaced with a prosthetic. The hemiarthroplasty procedure is most commonly opted for in the case of a fractured hip which commonly occurs in the elderly population or a fractured shoulder which is a more common injury among younger patients, especially athletes.

I is for Injury Prevention

‘I’ is for injury prevention because strengthening muscles, bones, and ligaments is an important step towards a healthy lifestyle. It is understandable that injuries occur, but by adopting a health diet, safe warm-up and cool-down routine, and habit of wearing proper safety gear when playing a sport, you are much more likely to prevent an injury and continue to strengthen your health and wellness.

J is for Joint Pain

Joint pain is one of the most common reasons that people visit an orthopedic surgeon like Dr. Stacie Grossfeld. Joint pain can be a telltale sign of a larger problem be it: joint pain during pregnancy, early signs of osteoarthritis, or even Lyme disease. If you are experiencing pain in your knees, elbows, shoulders, or neck, visit an orthopedic specialist. A medical professional can help you get answers as well as pain relief.

K is for Knee Replacement Surgery

Knee replacement surgery is a common surgical procedure performed by orthopedic surgeons day after day. The medical term for a knee replacement surgery is a total knee arthroplasty. The occurrence of these surgeries has increased by 160% in the last 20 years. This is due in part to increased levels of athleticism among U.S. citizen. It is also due to higher numbers of obese citizens. If you are in need of knee replacement surgery, it is important you know what to do prior to surgery, what to expect, and how to recover.

L is for Labral Hip Injury

A labral hip injury is a tear in the ring of cartilage that lines the socket portion of a hip joint. Most common in rowers, golfers, ballet dancers, and hockey players, labral hip injuries are another overuse injury (similar to Golfer’s Elbow) that occur in athletes. One of the most telltale signs of a labral hip injury is consistent pain in the hip area after exercise. However, research is starting to suggest that labral hip injuries may be a side effect of a pre-existing condition like Femoroacetabular Impingement which was discussed earlier in this article.

M is for Meniscal Tear

A meniscal tear is similar to osteoarthritis in that it is also a knee injury. However, it differs in almost every other aspect including: pain, location of the injury, treatment, and recovery. If you are suffering from a meniscal tear, you will feel a sharp, sudden pain that may result in a popping or clicking sound when the knee bends and swelling to the area. The treatment plan for a meniscal tear requires surgery whereas osteoarthritis can be treated with medications.

We’ve come to the end of Part 1 of the ABCs of Orthopedics. Stay tuned for Part 2 which will be published in the next week. If you have further questions about these terms and what they mean, contact Orthopaedic Specialists today!

Dr. Stacie Grossfeld has over 20 years experience in the field of orthopedics. She specializes in both orthopedic surgery and sports medicine. If you are suffering from joint pain, muscle weakness, or a sports injury – contact her today by calling 502-212-2663 or filling out a contact form.

What is Sarcopenia, What Causes It, and How Can You Maintain Muscle Mass As You Age?

Every person gains muscle mass and strength from birth until middle age. However, after the age of 30, your muscles start to weaken and lose functionality. The cause of this muscle loss is age-related and while it can be treated, it cannot be prevented. Sarcopenia is when the loss of muscle mass becomes so severe that it results in a person becoming disabled. Physically inactive people are more susceptible to severe cases of sarcopenia than those who workout regularly. People who are physically inactive can lose anywhere from 3% to 5% of their muscle mass every 10 years after the age of 30. Those who are active regularly will still see muscle loss, but it will be at a much lower rate.

Muscle loss occurs naturally and in all humans, eventually. The medical issue arises when the sarcopenia severely affects the person in question. For some, sarcopenia starts to seriously affect musculature as early as 65-years-old and for others, it doesn’t set in until 80. The complex process of muscle degeneration has stumped scientists and doctors for years. It is still unknown why sarcopenia can affect sedentary and active people with the same severity. Scientists have found some factors that play a key role in the development of sarcopenia as aging occurs, including: a change in hormone levels, dying motor neurons, and altered requirements around protein. All of these factors, plus the fact that as people age they become more sedentary naturally, play a role.

The good news is that there are plenty of ways to maintain muscle mass while you age. As stated earlier, loss of muscle mass starts in middle age, but it is not severe enough that it causes any sort of disability-related issues. This is the best time to start working on maintaining muscle mass. How? Below we’ve collected a list of ways to help maintain muscle mass and prevent sarcopenia from setting in early.

5 Ways to Maintain Muscle Mass While Aging & Avoid Sarcopeniasarcopenia

1. Establish An Exercise Routine

As you age, the worst thing that you can do to stave off sarcopenia is adapt to your sedentary lifestyle and remain inactive. Exercise is the best way to intervene with muscle loss and prevent it from escalating at a fast rate. When establishing an exercise routine, it is important to focus on resistance exercise. Resistance exercises use weights and reps to improve strength in muscles and decrease frailty. If you can get into the gym or find time to exercise at home at least 3 days a week then your chances of losing muscles and developing sarcopenia will become much lower.

2. Increase Your Protein Intake

It is extremely important that as you age, you increase the amount of protein you consume. Protein is a food that is directly relating to repairing muscle fibers and building more muscle. In a study that was recently completed, it showed that over 10% of men and almost 25% of women over the age of 70 years old do not get the recommended amount of protein in their daily diet. By increasing your protein intake, you’re setting your body up to maintain musculature. There is a simple formula that can be used to determine the amount of protein you should be incorporating into your day-to-day diet. First take your weight and multiply by .45 to determine your body weight in kilograms. Then multiply that number by 1.2 to determine how many grams of protein you should be eating every day.

3. Balance Hormone Levels

Ensuring that your hormone levels are balanced is another important factor in maintaining muscle mass. This is especially true for women who are post-menopausal. Deficiencies in hormones among men and women have been directly linked to sarcopenia. There are many ways to monitor your hormone levels and plenty of ways – medically and naturally – to balance or supplement your hormones. Hormone maintenance starts with blood work that is done by your doctor to establish the existing levels within your body. You’ll then develop a plan on increasing or decreasing hormones until you reach a healthy balance that promotes muscle maintenance.

4. Introduce Vitamin D Into Your Diet

Multiple medical studies have shown that lower muscle strength is directly associated to low levels of vitamin D in a person’s blood. Lower levels of vitamin D result in instability and frequent falls in older adults. No matter race, ethnicity, or sex – low levels of vitamin D is the most common nutritional deficiency among the elderly and low levels have been associated with sarcopenia. By supplementing vitamin D into your diet, you can improve the function and mass of muscles and prevent sarcopenia.

5. Decrease Pro-Inflammatory Foods & Increase Anti-Inflammatory Foods

It is important for overall health to cut back on the pro-inflammatory foods you consume daily. The two biggest substances that you want to avoid if cutting pro-inflammatory foods out of your diet are high fructose corn syrup and trans fat. Processed foods are also guilty of containing omega-6 fatty acids and other substances, such as refined sugar and carbohydrates, that create inflammation. By decreasing pro-inflammatory substances in your diet and increasing anti-inflammatory foods, you’ll improve any onset sarcopenia and your overall health. It is recommended to adopt a Mediterranean diet if you are struggling with unhealthy eating habits. You can learn more about what foods and substances make up a Mediterranean diet here.

Muscle loss occurs naturally as we age, but that does not mean that we cannot maintain muscle mass to fight off sarcopenia. These five suggestions above are a great place to start working on maintaining muscle mass. If you are interested in getting more information about exercising and dieting to improve your overall health, visit the health section of the Orthopaedic Specialist website.

Dr. Stacie Grossfeld has over 10 years of experience as an orthopedic surgeon with a focus on sports medicine. Healthy muscle mass is crucial for athletes and adults, alike, and Dr. Grossfeld has extensive knowledge surrounding musculature and healthy ways to maintain muscle mass as we age. If you are suffering from limited mobility and strength due to a loss of muscle mass, contact Orthopaedic Specialists today at 502-212-2663.

Growing Pains: What They Are and How To Get Help from a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon

Growing Pains and Your Child

Mystery pains are no fun… but if your child is between the ages of 5 and 12, their intermittent pain may not be such a mystery after all. Growing pains are the benign aches children get throughout their limbs at this time of their lives. About 35% of children experience them at some time of their life and they are the most common type of limb pain in juveniles.

Growing Pains Myths growing pains pediatric orthopedic surgeon

Despite the name, modern medicine has discovered that these aches and pains are not actually associated with your child’s growing body. The term “growing pains” comes from the 1930s and 40s when people hypothesized that the pain was due to an accelerated growth of the bones that couldn’t keep up with tendon grown. In fact, there is no evidence connecting bone growth to pain. In fact, bones grow very slowly– so slowly that there’s no way it could cause noticeable aches.

It’s also a myth that any old ache your child experiences can be written off as growing pains. Growing pains can be characterized as muscle aches in the legs and arms. The most common areas for pain are the calves and quadriceps (the muscles that make up the front of the thigh). Additionally, they most often occur in the late afternoon or evening and resolve by the morning. Therefore if your child experiences persistent pain throughout the body, it’s time to take them to the doctor for an examination.

So What Causes Them?

If they aren’t caused by growth, what causes growing pains? The answer is not clear at this point in time. Some evidence points to hypermobility or flexibility in children. Other children that report growing pains tend to have very low pain thresholds and often experience abdominal pain and headaches. Some studies point to decreased bone strength in children that experience pain.

The best theory doctors have at the moment is children experience greater amounts of aches and pains after particularly active days. “Overuse” of muscles from jumping, climbing, and running throughout the day leads to fatigue and aches later in the evening. Growing pains may just be a juvenile form of the delayed onset muscle soreness adults experience when beginning a new exercise routine.

Diagnosis of Exclusion

Since doctors do not exactly know what even causes growing pains, it’s not easy to diagnose them. Doctors determine whether or not your child’s aches are growing pains through diagnoses of exclusion. If the doctor does not find another cause for the pain after a thorough examination and your child’s symptoms do not exceed those typically associated with growing pains, they come to this conclusion. If your child experiences fever, limping, persistent pain, swelling, rashes, fatigue, loss of appetite, or a change in behavior, their doctor will want to dig deeper to find the cause of their pains.

Treating Growing Pains

If your child’s doctor establishes their aches as simple growing pains, there are ways to alleviate the discomfort. Lightly massaging their arms and legs relaxes sore muscles and reduces inflammation associated with pain. Teach your child to regularly stretch after exercise to keep muscles limber and reduce achiness. Your child may enjoy yoga as a way to unwind after a day that can also help lengthen and tone their growing muscles.

A warm bath with Epsom salt may help relieve pain and reduce muscle soreness for your child. Though there is little scientific evidence to back this claim, anecdotal evidence is abundant. A heating pad or hot water bottle placed around the area of soreness helps alleviate muscle pain as well.  A doctor approved pain reliever can also be administered to help your child’s aching limbs.

Talking to a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon

If your child experiences severe, persistent aches and pains, you will want to take them to a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon for examination. Before the appointment, identify the answers to the following questions:

  • How long are periods of pain?
  • What time of day does your child experience the pain?
  • Where on the body does your child experience the pain? Is there one concentrated area?
  • Does your child wake up at night because of the pain?
  • Are there any additional symptoms including swelling, fever, headaches, or abdominal pain?
  • Does anything help alleviate the pain?

Your Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon will examine your child’s bones and muscles to see how he or she responds to touch and movement. Signs of tenderness may signify a deeper issue that necessitates X rays or other tests.


If your child experiences persistent pain in their muscles and joints, contact Dr. Stacie Grossfeld today. Dr. Grossfeld has over 10 years of experience as an Orthopedic Surgeon for both adults and kids alike. As a Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon, she helps families identify the causes behind abnormal aches and pains in order to find the best treatment. Call 502-212-2663 to make an appointment.






South Oldham High School Athletic Trainer Kelly Dike Loves Helping Youth Athletes Reach Their Potential

athletic trainer kelly pikeIf every school had an athletic trainer as dedicated, knowledgeable and passionate about their work, there’s no doubt the number of youth sports injuries would significantly drop, while the overall athletic performance would noticeably increase. But Kelly Dike is one of a kind and it’s certain that very few school athletic programs have an athletic trainer as dedicated and experienced.

Born and raised in Wisconsin, Kelly has over 12 years of experience serving the South Oldham community.  She works as an employee for Baptist Sports Medicine with a full-time job at South Oldham High School.

Becoming a Certified Athletic Trainer

While many of us go through college having no idea what we really want to do for a long-term career, Kelly was fortunate. After suffering from several knee injuries in high school, she was sent to her school athletic trainer. She explains: “When I got exposed to the profession as a patient, I just realized, wow, this is really cool … this is something I’d love to do.”

kelly pike, athletic trainer at south oldham high schoolAfter graduating from high school, Kelly attended Winona State University in Minnesota, earning a B.S. in Exercise Science. And then she went on to Indiana State to complete her Master’s Degree.  The summer before starting graduate school, Kelly landed an internship at a Lexington Sports Medicine Clinic. “I really liked Kentucky,” she explains, “and I have some extended family in Oldham County so that was definitely a location that I was interested in…” But at graduation time, there weren’t any job openings in the area, so Kelly went home to live with her parents while looking for a job. Three weeks later she was offered a position in a small school near Lansing, Michigan and off she moved.

In the spring of 2005, Kelly saw a job opening serving South Oldham High School and she decided to apply. After a series of interviews, she was very excited to be offered the position, but would only accept under the condition that she could finish out the school year she’d already started in Michigan. She was dedicated to the athletes and the school system that she was serving and didn’t want to leave them during the middle of the school year.  This is just one small example of the type of character Kelly exudes.

A Day in the Life of a Nationally Certified and State Licensed High School Athletic Trainer

Kelly’s day varies significantly depending on the time of year but one thing that remains a constant – her work is almost always busy.  For example, during the summer when many educators enjoy some R&R, Kelly is immersed in preseason which kicks off July 15th. Preseason field hockey practice generally goes from 6 a.m. until 8 a.m. followed by soccer from 8 a.m. until 10 a.m. Cross country is often in the morning too, and then around 2 p.m. in the afternoon football starts.  (more…)

8 Facts from a Recent Study on ACL Reconstructions from the American Journal of Sports Medicine

ACL Reconstruction and Future OutcomesDr. Stacie Grossfeld is a double board-certified surgeon in the fields of orthopedic surgery and also sports medicine. Her combination of specialties means that she spends a lot of time working with injured athletes around Louisville, KY. One of the most common injuries among high school and college athletes are torn Anterior Cruciate Ligaments (ACLs). In order to offer the best medical care that she can, Dr. Grossfeld stays up-to-date on scientific findings surrounding ACL injuries and ACL reconstruction. One of the main resources that Dr. Grossfeld uses to do so is the American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM).

The AJSM is “an invaluable resource for the orthopedic sports medicine community” and is also a peer-reviewed scientific journal. The most common topics that the AJSM covers include:

  • ACL Injuries & Reconstructions
  • Degenerative Joint Disease
  • New Surgical Techniques
  • Rehabilitation & Physical Training
  • Subjects Specific to Sports
  • Treatment Techniques

Recently the AJSM released an article in which they discussed updates to 10 previously stated facts regarding ACL injuries, treatment, and reconstructions. These facts came from a study of 2,019 patients who underwent ACL reconstructions in California over a nine-year period from 2005 to 2014. The 2,019 patients were cared for by 200 different surgeons spread out among 46 different hospitals in California. Follow along to read more about what was learned during this study and how it will affect the future of orthopedic medicine.

8 Facts on ACL Reconstruction Learned from the Newest American Journal of Sports Medicine Study 

  1. 10.5% of Patients Required Subsequent Operative Procedures

  2. 4.3% of Patients Underwent a Second Revision Surgery

  3. Over Half of the Patients had a Concurrent Meniscal Injury

  4. Out of Those Patients, Only 26% Were Reparable

  5. Cartilage Injuries & Damage Were Present in 42% of Patients

  6. Deep Surgical Infections Occurred in 6% of Patients

  7. Deep Venous Thrombosis Occurred in .3% of Patients

  8. Pulmonary Embolism Occurred in .1% of Patients

The facts learned from the most recent study on ACL reconstruction by the American Journal of Sports Medicine are important for the future of orthopedics. ACL reconstruction surgery has many benefits including regaining mobility and being able to return to normal activity. However, as this study proves, there are also some risks that come with ACL reconstructions. Most risks associated with ACL reconstruction surround the activity level the patient is used to and wants to return to.

An ACL injury can be devastating to athletes and non-athletes alike. It is highly recommended if you’re an athlete who suffers a torn ACL, you do not return to the same level of sporting activity you were at prior to injury. Multiple studies have been done on re-injury rates in younger athletes and while the studies differ, the findings are similar. Overall, findings prove that once an athlete suffers an ACL tear, the risk of re-injury is extremely high.

On the other hand, if you are over the age of 60 and tear your ACL, reconstruction can be hugely beneficial. Years ago, the idea of performing an ACL reconstruction on a patient over 60 years of age was almost unheard of. However, in this day and age, researchers have found that elderly patients with no signs of knee arthritis benefit greatly from ACL reconstruction surgery.

Studies on orthopedic medicine surrounding ACL injuries and reconstructions are highly important to the medical community.

As studies continue to release data, orthopedic surgeons, like Dr. Grossfeld, can learn more on how to assess, diagnose, and treat patients of all ages and backgrounds who suffer ACL injuries. Studies, like this one, can also help orthopedic surgeons address the risks that come with surgery and discuss other options for rehabilitation with high-risk patients. As more studies surrounding ACL injuries and reconstructions, as well as other orthopedic medicine topics, are released, Dr. Grossfeld will also continue to evaluate that information here.

To learn more about the American Journal of Sports Medicine, visit their website here. If you are an athlete or non-athlete between the ages of 20 and 60 who has suffered a torn ACL and are in need of medical attention, contact Dr. Stacie Grossfeld today. Dr. Grossfeld has over 10 years of experience repairing torn ACLs and is constantly reading up on the latest findings regarding ACL injuries. Call 502-212-2663 to make an appointment today.

Ironman Louisville Q&A with Orthopedic Surgeons

Louisville Triathlon 2017Ironman Louisville takes place this weekend and competitors from all over the world will be present to participate. The Ironman Louisville is a qualifier for the Kona Ironman World Championship held on the Big Island of Hawaii every year.

The Kona Ironman World Championship race started in 1978 on the island of Oahu with only 15 participants (12 finishers) . The distance of the ironman were set at that race with a 2.4 ocean swim, 112 mile bike ride and a 26.2 mile run. These distances were determined by combining the Waikiki Rough Water Swim, Around Oahu bike race and the Honolulu Marathon move to one continuous race. The event is now held in the lava fields of the Big Island of Hawaii and has over 2000 participants. It is estimated that over 600,000 people have completed an ironman distance.

An excellent article published in Orthopedics Today in July 2017 interviewed a group of orthopedic (more…)

Orthopaedic Specialists Recognized as a Finalist in Business First’s 2017 Louisville Business of the Year

Louisville Business of the Year 2017The finalists for Louisville Business First’s 2017 Business of the Year Awards have been released.

This program has been recognizing Louisville-area businesses since 2005, identifying companies that demonstrate growth, innovation and excellent leadership. Businesses and organizations of varying sizes and across industries are identified in six different categories: Very Large, Large, Medium, Small, Emerging, Non-Profit.

Orthopaedic Specialists is very excited to be among the 19 companies and organizations chosen as a finalist for the 2017 Louisville Business of the Year Awards. Orthopaedic Specialists is a finalist in the Small Business of the Year category.


Hyponatremia: The Signs and Symptoms

hyponatremiaIt is a common misconception that sodium is bad for you. While excessive sodium levels can be dangerous and put you at a risk for certain health issues, your body needs sodium. Sodium is on the periodic table of elements and is an electrolyte. When the right amount of sodium is in the body, it helps to regulate water levels in your cells. However, when too much sodium or not enough is in the body, complications can arise. When the sodium levels in the body are too low, cells start to swell. Swelling cells can cause a wide range of health problems that range from mild to life-threatening. Hyponatremia is a result of not having enough sodium in the body. Whether the cause of lowered sodium levels is a medical condition or from consuming too much water, hyponatremia can occur.

There are many symptoms to this disease, but a lot of them are symptoms shared across a plethora of medical conditions. However, if you’re feeling a combination of any of the following symptoms, you may be suffering from hyponatremia:

  • Nausea induced vomiting
  • Headache and confusion
  • Sudden loss of energy
  • Heightened irritability
  • Muscle spasms and cramping
  • Sudden seizures

There are many reasons that sodium is important for the body. Besides maintaining the level of water in your cells, sodium also helps regulate blood pressure and supports nerves and muscles. A regulated level of sodium falls between 135 and 145 mEq/L. When the level of sodium drops below 135 mEq/Ls, hyponatremia occurs.

Causes of Hyponatremia

How does a person’s sodium level drop below 135 mEq/L? There are plenty of different conditions and factors that can lead to hyponatremia including:

    • Problems with the Heart, Kidney, or Liver

      There are certain diseases that affect organs such as the liver, heart, and kidney which can cause hyponatremia to occur. When a major organ fails or starts to fail, fluids tend to collect. This, in turn, dilutes the sodium in the body which lowers it.

    • Severe Diarrhea or Vomiting

      When someone is suffering from a severe bought of diarrhea or recurrent vomiting, fluids are leaving the body at a fast rate. With both of these medical issues, electrolytes leave the body. As electrolytes, including sodium, leave the body the risk of hyponatremia rises.

    • Over Hydrating

      Hyponatremia often occurs in athletes who participate in high endurance activities like triathlons and other marathon sports. This happens for a couple of different reasons. For one, high endurance athletes sweat a lot and when the body sweats, it loses sodium. But more often, it is due to athletes drinking excessive amounts of water and diluting their body’s sodium levels unintentionally. 

    • Extreme Dehydration

      On the other side of the hydration spectrum, dehydration can also result in hyponatremia. When the body becomes dehydrated, it is low on fluids and electrolytes. Since sodium is an electrolyte its levels drop when one is suffering from dehydration.

Several factors can also heighten the risk of hyponatremia including: age, medications, and recreational drug use. If you are diagnosed after seeking medical attention, the treatment will be determined by the cause. Fluids are administered and depending on the severity of the hyponatremia may vary from solute intake to intravenous administration.

Hyponatremia is a serious health problem and more often occurs in females, the elderly, and people who are in the hospital. If you feel that you may have signs and symptoms of hyponatremia, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. For more information, visit HealthLine here.

If you are in the Louisville, KY area and think you may be suffering from hyponatremia or would like more information on how to prevent hyponatremia, contact Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists. Dr. Grossfeld is double board-certified in orthopedics and sports medicine with 15+ years of experience. Contact Dr. Grossfeld by calling 502-212-2663 to schedule an appointment.

Back Pain During Pregnancy: How To Find Relief

back pain reliefPregnancy is a miracle in and of itself; however, that doesn’t mean that the entire process is painless. For most women, the excitement of bringing a child into the world overpowers any discomfort. That is not the case for everyone though. Some women find themselves in quite a bit of pain while pregnant. One of the most common causes of pain in women who are pregnant is backache. Other causes of pain and discomfort include:

  • Acne
  • Constipation
  • Cramps
  • Heartburn
  • Swollen Joints
  • Migraines

Regardless, back pain tops this list as a common cause of pain among women that are pregnant. The back pain that most pregnant women experience is due to ligaments loosening up in preparation of giving birth. The posture strain that carrying a baby can cause only intensifies discomfort most women feel in their backs. More often than not, the back pain will be more intense and feel worse at night than during the day.

While back pain may plague many women, there are ways to find back pain relief during pregnancy. Some ways to find relief are simple and can be achieved quickly. Others require more preparation and the occasional office visit. Below we’ve outlined five ways to find back pain relief during pregnancy.

Five Ways to Find Back Pain Relief During Pregnancy

  • Prenatal Yoga

There is no denying that yoga has become a very popular form of exercise and meditation over the last 10 years. The movement-based practice improves strength and flexibility when practiced and is one of the top techniques that women turn to when looking for pain relief. Prenatal yoga has the power to improve posture and get the physical body ready to undergo the birthing process. It also can help women overcome emotional stress through breathing exercises. Prenatal yoga has become a top choice among pregnant women who are in need of back pain relief or a variety of other discomforts during pregnancy including: muscle soreness, joint pain, and problems with nerves.

  • Acupuncture

Another Asian technique for pain relief is acupuncture. While acupuncture is not medically proven to work there have been studies done that show a direct correlation between back pain relief during pregnancy and acupuncture. During an acupuncture session, very thin needles are inserted into pressure points that are connected to physical and emotional health systems. Those who believe in the practice of acupuncture believe that it removes blockages that are interfering with the body’s energy. Contact your doctor prior to undergoing acupuncture. It is important to consult your doctor and ensure that acupuncture is going to be right for you prior to undergoing a session.

  • Chiropractic Care

Most people consider chiropractors to only assist with joint paint, but they are very well versed in relieving back pain. Using some of the same techniques such as joint manipulation and soft tissue work, chiropractors can bring relief to back pain. Pregnant women who undergo chiropractic care often find relief from tight muscles, compressed nerves, and misaligned joints.

  • Prenatal Massage

If a pregnant woman experiencing back pain visits a certified prenatal massage therapist, they will often find back pain relief quickly. This is true of back pain that’s a result of clenched muscles in a certain area of the back irritating a nerve. In particular, the sciatic nerve often causes back pain in women and prenatal massages will help relieve that pain. The most common approach to prenatal massage is Swedish massage because it uses long strokes that are smooth and rarely aggravates joints.

  • Avoiding Strenuous Activity

One of the best ways to find relief for back pain is to avoid causing it in the first place. As a woman gets further and further along in her pregnancy, it is pertinent that she limits her level of activity. If a pregnant woman avoids strenuous activity then she is less likely to experience moderate to severe back pain. Avoiding heavy lifting and standing for prolonged periods of time will significantly help cut down on back pain. Women can also rest often with their legs elevated and this will often relieve back pain, as well.

These are just a few of the many ways that women can relieve back pain during pregnancy.

Some minor changes can also improve the severity of back pain during pregnancy. Minor changes include: practicing good posture, wearing low heeled shoes with arch support, and sleeping on a side instead of the back. However, some back pain – especially severe and sudden back pain – can be an indicator of a larger health issue and should be reviewed and treated by a doctor.

If you are pregnant, or know someone who is pregnant, and suffering from back pain – contact Dr. Stacie Grossfeld at Orthopaedic Specialists in Louisville, KY. Dr. Grossfeld has over 15 years of medical experience and can help relieve back pain and discomfort. Contact the office today at 502-212-2663 to discuss your pain and schedule an appointment.


What is External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis?


external iliac artery endofibrosisImagine a young athlete at the top of his game– perhaps a cyclist. He works out daily, eats right, and gets plenty of rest. He is visibly healthy in every way with no familial history of cardiovascular disease. Yet this young man could be at risk for arterial disease… but why?

External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis (EIAE)– nicknamed “cyclist arterial disease”– results from repeated pressure on the external iliac, the part of the artery found in the hip area before it splits in two to run down the legs. Athletes put pressure on the iliac artery when they spend time bending forward while exercising. Over time, the artery becomes kinked and irritated. The body attempts to reduce the irritation by hardening the artery, which in turn restricts blood flow to the legs.

Symptoms of External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis

Symptoms of EIAE can seem fairly innocuous. Generally, the person begins to feel cramping in one of their legs when heavily exercising. For athletes, cramping is not unusual; they often feel some degree of muscle pain and fatigue when exercising. However, the cramps don’t go away; in fact, they get worse with time.

Eventually, a person with EIAE will find that the harder they go, the more difficult it is. The pain will graduate from mere cramping to more extreme bouts of pain. The person may feel like their leg is unstable and on the verge of seizing. Many patients describe the accelerated pain as burning or bursting. Eventually, they are not able to perform as they once did.

External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis vs Typical Arteriosclerosis

Typically arteriosclerosis is the product of old age, bad diet, smoking, and other poor health choices. As plaque builds up along the artery walls, it restricts blood flow. Cardiologists consider this as chemical irritation, unlike External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis which is a physical irritation.

While arteriosclerosis and arterial disease are very common in the United States, EIAE is rather rare. EIAE is difficult to diagnose as symptoms only appear during strenuous exercise and are often confused with general muscle fatigue. Arteriosclerosis symptoms are noticeable once a blockage occurs and require immediate medical attention.

Treating External Iliac Artery Endofibrosis

The best treatment for EIAE is to cease training altogether and allow the body to heal. However, since doctors discover most cases of EIAE in professional athletes, quitting is not an option for some. A surgical procedure where the kinked part of your artery is removed and replaced with a bit of vein tissue in its place. Vein tissue is much more flexible and can withstand pressure a bit better. The procedure is risky. In 2007, professional cyclist Ryan Cox died while recuperating from a vascular lesion operation.


If you’re an athlete and you are experiencing debilitating pain in your leg while training, call Dr Stacie Grossfeld at 502-212-2663 today or visit Orthopaedic Specialists in Louisville, KY to seek medical care.